This module will survey the range of techniques and methodologies available to determine the nature and composition of nanoparticles (both organic and inorganic), thin films and nano-structures.As well as giving a more detailed account of a selection of some of the most common techniques, the module will take a trouble-shooting approach: beginning with the material/object; identifying the information that is required; formulating an approach to obtaining that information; making a rational choice of technique(s) and methodology(ies); giving due regard to efficiency and cost-effectiveness.